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Archives:  Jos� Mar�a Morelos

Decree Concerning Castes | Medidas Pol�ticas | Sentiments of the Nation | Last Days of Morelos


Padre MorelosDECRETO SOBRE LA GUERRA DE CASTAS
Decree Concerning the War of the Castes

Don Jos� Mar�a Morelos, teniente general del ej�rcito y general en los del sur decreta:
Don Jos� Mar�a Morelos, Lt. Gen. of the Army, and General of the South hereby decrees:

Por cuanto un grand�simo equ�voco que se ha padecido en esta costa iba a precipitar a todos sus habitantes a las m�s horroros anarqu�a, o m�s bien a la lamentable desolaci�n provenido este da�o de excederse los oficiales de los l�mites de sus facultades queriendo proceder el inferior contra el superior, cuya revoluci�n ha entorpecido en gran manera los progresos de nuestras armas y para cortar de ra�z semejantes perturbaciones, y des�rdenes he venido a declarar por decreto de este d�a los puntos sigientes.
Albeit that a grave error has been incurred, and what we have suffered on this coast could bring upon all of us the inhabitants the worst of anarchy, or better stated a lamentable desolation. This came in part from the damage done because officials have gone beyond their boundaries and faculties. Now the inferior has proceeded with charges against the superior, their revolution has experienced difficulty in great part with little progress. Our weapons are to cut off at the root, uprisings and disorders which have come about and I am come to declare by degree this day the following points.

Que nuestro sistema s�lo se encamina a que el gobierno pol�tico y militar que reside en los europeos recaiga en los criollos quienes guardar�n mejor los derechos del se�or don Fernando S�ptimo. Y en consecuencia de que no haga distinci�n de calidades, sino que todos generalmente nos nombremos americanos para mir�ndonos como hermanos vivamos en la Santa Paz que nuestro Redentor Jesucristo nos dej� cuando hizo su triunfante subida a los cielos, de que se sigue que todos deben conocerlo; que no hay motivo para las que se llamaban castas quieran destruirse unos con otros, los blancos contra los negros o estos contra los naturales, pues ser�a el yerro mayor quer pod�an cometer los hombres, cuyo hecho no ha tenido ejemplar en todos los siglos y naciones, mucho menos deb�amos permitirlo en la presente �poca porque ser�a la causa de nuestra total perdici�n espiritual y temporal.
For in as much our system only shall be able to proceed once that the political government and military falls into the hands of "the criollos"[American-born Spaniards including mixed bloods], who would be better keepers of the rights of our lord Don Fernando the Seventh [King of Spain]. And as a consequence, from hereon no distinction shall be made in categories of qualities, being that generally all of us call ourselves Americans, and looking each to the other as brothers, we ought to live in the Holy Peace that our Redeemer, Jesus Christ has left us when he made a triumphant ascension into the heavens, and it follows that all should know him, that there be no motive for those groupings that are called castes, which only want to destroy each one the other, the whites against the blacks, and these against the native Americans. For it would be the worst crime of all that man would commit, which deed would not have any equal example in all of the centuries and nations, much less we ought not to permit this [anarchy] in our time, because it would be the cause of our total destruction, both spiritual and moral.   
sdct

Que siendo los blancos los primeros representantes del reino y los que primero tomaron las armas en defensa de los naturales de los pueblos y dem�s castas con ellos: deben ser los blancos por este m�rito el objeto de nuestra gratitud y no del odio que se quiere formar contra ellos.
Since the whites were the first representatives in the kingdom, and they were the first ones to take up arms in defense of the native peoples, and the other castes with them, we then owe to the whites the object of our merit and gratitude and not our hate, which easily could be formed against them.

Que los oficiales de las tropas, jueces y comisionados no deben de excederse en los t�rminos de las facultades que se concede a sus empleos, menos proceda el inferior contra el superior si no fuere con especial comisi�n de la Suprema Junta, por escrito y no de palabra la que manifestara a la persona contra quien fuera a proceder.
That the officials of the troops, judges and commissioned officers ought not to show excess in their duly rights, but that they concede in their tasks, unless charged by an inferior against the superior, and then only with special allowance of the Suprema Junta [Congress], in written form, not verbally, manifesting the grievance against the person they wish to charge.

Que ning�n oficial como juez y comisionado, ni gente sin autoridad de auxilio para proceder el inferior contra el superior, mientras no se le manifieste orden especial m�a o de Su Majestad la Suprema Junta y se le haga saber por persona fidedigna.
That no official acting as judge or commissioned officer, neither deputized agents without authority bring charges, the inferior against the superior until receiving special orders from me, or His Majesty the Suprema Junta, and that be done by bonafide persons.

Que ning�n individuo fuere quen fuere tome la voz de la Naci�n para estos procedimientos ni otros alborotos, pues habiendo superioridad legitima y autorizada deben ocurrir a ella en los caso arduos y de traici�n y ninguno proceder� con autoridad propia.
That no individual be that who it may, take the voice of the Nation to proceed in other kinds of riots, now that we have a legitimate superior entity should bring to them their most difficult cases of betrayal of the nation and so that no one bring charges in his own authority.

Que siendo como no es nuestro sistema proceder contra los ricos por raz�n de tales, ni menos contta los ricos criollos ninguno se atrever� a echar mano de sus bienes por muy rico que sea; ser contra todo derecho semejante acci�n principalmente contra La Ley Divina, que nos prohibe hurtar y tomar lo anas. Que aun siendo culpados algunos ricos europeos o criolljeno contra la voluntad de su due�o y aun el pensamiento de codiciar cosas ajeos, no se eche mano de sus bienes sino con orden expresa superior de la expedici�n y con el orden y reglas que deben efectuarse por secuestro o embargo para que todo tenga el uso debido.
Being now that it is our system, we will not bring charges against the rich, for whatever reasons, and much less against the rich criollos. No one dare to lay hands on their goods, no matter how rich that person may be, it will be against all rights of our neighbors to take this action, principally against the Divine Law, which prohibits us from robbing and stealing other's things against the will of their rightful owner, and even the thought of coveting things that belong to another. Even though they may be guilty as rich europeans or criollos none shall lay hold of their goods without express orders from a superior. This order or rules needs to be effective also against kidnapping or confiscating so that everything be done in due process.

Que los que se atrevieran a cometer atentado contra lo dispuestro de este decreto ser�n castigados con todo el rigor de las leyes y la misma pena tendr�n los que idearn sediciones y alborotos en otros acontecimientos que aqu� no se expresan por indefinidos den los esp�ritus de malignidad pero que sean opuestors a la ley de Dios, tranquilidad de los habitantes del reino y progreso de nuestras armas.
Be it that anyone dares to commit a crime against this decree, he shall be punished with all rigor of the laws and the same punishment shall have anyone who has ideas of rioting, overthowing the government, and in all accounts not expressly mentioned here for lack of definition, those given to evil spirits, and are against the law of God, tranquility of the inhabitants of the kingdom and progress of our arms [cause].

Y para que llegue noticia a todos y nadie alegue ignorancia; mando se publique por bando en esta ciudad y su partido y en los dem�s de la comprensi�n de mi mando y se fije en los parajes acostumbrados es fechado en la ciudad de Nuestra Se�ora de Guadalupe de Teipan, a 13 de Octubre de 1811. Jose Mar�a Morelos.
And so that this notice can reach everyone and no one be ignorant of the same, I order that this publication be posted in the city, on the entrance and everywhere people can read and comprehend my orders, posting it upon the pathways as is the customs. It is dated in the City of Our Lady of Guadalupe of Tecpan, Oct. 13th, 1811, Jos� Mar�a Morelos

From Coleccion de Documentos para la Historia de la Guerra de Independencia de Mexico 1808 a 1821, Tomo 3, pag. 401, contributed and translated by Tim Rovenstine   sdct


Medidas Pol�ticas
(Medidas pol�ticas que deben tomar los jefes de los ej�rcitos Americanos para lograr sus fines por medios llanos y seguros, evitando la efusi�n de sangre de una y otra parte)

1. All rich persons, nobles, and officials of the highest ranks, whether creoles or gachupines, will be considered enemies of the nation. All their properties will be subject to confiscation, half going to the poor, and half to the army.

2. All properties will be taken as reimbursement.

3. The redistribution which will affect the people of the towns must be made with the greatest care, so that no one individual becomes enriched, and so that everyone in general is given assistance.

4. The same policy will apply to the properties of the churches, with the exception of parochial books.

5. Royalist buildings and archives will be burned.

6. Overseas products will be destroyed.

7. All haciendas greater than two leagues in size will be broken up into smaller plots.

8. Tobacco crops, mines, and sugar plantations will be destroyed.

Medidas Pol�ticas was written by Morelos Tehu�can-Orizaba area in fall 1812. This has been interpreted by some including Mexican historian, Lucas Alam�n, as a radical socio-economic program and by others to credit Morelos as an early agrarian reformer. Others believe it was prepared more specifically as part of his military rational in preparation for the attack on Oaxaca (From Morelos: Priest, Soldier, Statesman of Mexico by Wilbert H. Timmons)  sdct


23 puntos dados por Jos� Mar�a Morelos para la Constituci�n Sentimientos de la Naci�n,14 de septiembre de 1813

23 Points Given by Jos� Mar�a Morelos for the Constitution Sentiments of the Nation, Chilpancingo, Mexico, September 14, 1813

1. Que la Am�rica es libre e independiente de Espa�a y de toda otra naci�n, gobierno o monarqu�a, y que as� se sancione dando al mundo las razones.

That America is free and independent of Spain, and from any other Nation, Government or Monarchy and hereby sanctions this by giving the world the following reasons.

2. Que la religi�n cat�lica sea la �nica sin tolerancia de otra.

That the Catholic Religion will be the only one without tolerance of any other.

3. Que todos sus ministros se sustenten de todos y solos los diezmos y primicias, y el pueblo no tenga que pagar mas obvenciones que las de su devoci�n y ofrenda.

That all it’s ministers will be supported by all with only their tithes and offerings, and that the people will not need to give anymore than their devotion and offerings.

4. Que el dogma sea sostenido por la jerarqu�a de la Iglesia, que son el papa, los obispos y los curas, por que se debe arrancar toda planta que Dios no plant�: Omnis plantatio quam non plantavit Pater meus celestis erradicabitur [Todo lo que Dios no plant� se debe arrancar de ra�z]. Mateo Cap�tulo XV.

That the dogma be upheld by the hierarchy of The Church, which are the pope, the bishops, and the priests, because every plant that God has not planted should be uprooted:  Every Plant that my Father has not planted should be taken up (Matthew Chapter 15).

5. Que la soberan�a dimana immediatamente del pueblo, el que s�lo quiere depositarla en el Supremo Congreso Nacional Americano, compuesto de representantes de las provincias en igualdad de n�meros.

That Sovereignty procede immediately from the people, who willingly deposits this trust in The Supreme American National Congress, composed of representatives of the provinces in equal numbers.

6. Que los poderes legislativo, ejecutivo y judicial est�n divididos en los cuerpos compatibles para ejercerlos

That the legislative, executive and judicial powers be divided into compatible bodies to carry them out.

7. Que funcionar�n quatro a�os los vocales, turn�ndose, saliendo los mas antiguos para que ocupen el lugar los nuevos electos.

That members will function 4 years, alternating, the older ones leaving so the newly elected can occupy the position.

8. La dotacion de los vocales, ser� una congrua suficiente y no superflua, y no pasar� por ahora de ocho mil pesos.

The salary of elected representatives will be a sufficient amount, but not excessive and shall not exceed for now 8,000 pesos.

9. Que los empleos s�lo los Americanos los obtengan.

That only Americans can hold these positions.

10. Que no se admitan extranjeros, si no son artesanos capaces de instruir y libres de toda sospecha.

That foreigners will not be admitted, unless they are skilled and capable of instructing others, and free of all suspicion.

11. Que los estados mudan costumbres y, por consiguiente, la patria no ser� del todo libre y nuestra mientras no se reforme el Gobierno, abatiendo el tir�nico, sustituyendo el liberal, e igualmente echando fuera de nuestro suelo al enemigo Espa�ol, que tanto se ha declarado contra nuestra patria.

That the states change their customs, and consequently the country will not be free and ours until the Government reforms, ridding itself of tyrants, substituting the liberal and equally expatriating from our soil the enemy the Spaniard, which has declared itself against our country.

12. Que como la buena ley es superior a todo hombre, las que dicte nuestro congreso deben ser tales, que obliguen a constancia y patriotismo, moderen la opulencia y la indigencia, y de tal suerte se aumente el jornal del pobre, que mejore sus costumbres, alejandro la ignorancia, la rapi�a y el hurto.

Because the good laws are above every man, laws that our Congress dictate should be such that oblige fidelity, patriotism, moderating opulence and misery, and laws of such fortune that increases the wages of the poor, that improves their standard of living, removing ignorance, violence and theft.

13. Que las leyes generales comprendan a todos, sin excepci�n de cuerpos privilegiados, y que �stos s�lo sean en cuanto al uso de su ministerio.

That the general laws apply to all, with the exception of a few priviledged bodies, and that these will only be for the use of your ministry.

14. Que para dictar una ley se haga junta de sabios en el n�mero posible, para que proceda con m�s acierto y exonere de algunos cargos que pudieran resultarles.

For a law to be made, wise and able men come together in a greater number so that they may proceed with all precise and certain manner and lift the burden which they can aptly do, and this will bring good results.

15. Que la esclavitud se proscriba para siempre y lo mismo la distinci�n de castas, quedando todos iguales, y s�lo distinguir� a un americano de otro el vicio y la virtud.

That slavery be prohibited for ever and also distinction between classes, leaving everyone equal, and Americans distinguished from one another only by their vice or virtue.  sdct

16. Que nuestros puertos se franqueen � las naciones extranjeras amigas, pero que �stas no se internen al reino por mas amigas que sean, y s�lo habr� puertos se�alados para el efecto, prohibiendo el desembarque en todos los dem�s, se�alando el diez por ciento.

That our ports are open to friendly foreign nations, but no matter how friendly they should not go inland, and there will be special ports for this purpose, tax being 10%.

17. Que a cada uno se le guarden las propiedades y respete en su casa como en un asilo sagrado se�alando penas � los infractores.

That each and everyone protect his own properties, and respect his own home as if it were a sacred asylum, punishing infractions.

18. Que en la nueva legislaci�n no se admita la tortura.

That the new legislation shall not permit torture.

19. Que en la misma se establezca por ley constitucional la celebraci�n del d�a 12 de diciembre de todos los pueblos, dedicando a la patrona de nuestra libertad, Mar�a sant�sima de Guadalupe, encargando a todos los pueblos la devoci�n mensal.

That herewith be established constitutional law, that all people celebrate Dec. 12, dedicated to the Queen of our liberty, Mary, Most Holy of Guadalupe, entrusting all people to a monthly devotion.sdct

20. Que las tropas extranjeras o de otro reino no pisen nuestro suelo, y si fuere en ayuda, no estar�n donde la Suprema Junta.

That foreign troops of any other kingdom never set foot upon our soil, and if they come to help, they never are where the Supreme Junta is.

21. Que no hagan expediciones fuera de los l�mites del reino, especialmente ultramarinas; pero que no son de esta clase propagar la fe a nuestros hermanos de Tierra-dentro.

That no [military?] expeditions take place out of the country, especially naval operations, only such expeditions to extend our faith to our brothers in far away lands.

22. Que se quite la �nfinidad de tributos, pechos e imposiciones que mas agobian y se se�ale a cada individuo un cinco por ciento de semillas y dem�s efectos o otra carga igual, ligera que no oprima tanto, como la alcabala, el estanco, el tributo y otros; pues con esta ligera contribuci�n y la buena administraci�n de los bienes confiscados al enemigo, podr� llevarse el peso de la guerra y honorarios de empleados.

That the burden of the large quantity of tribute, fees, taxes and impositions be ended, and that each individual pay 5% of his seeds and the rest of his personal effects or other comparable assets not be oppressed with surcharges, fiscal charges, fines, contributions, et. cetera.; for with light taxation and proper administration of public assets confiscated from our enemy we shall be able to carry the burden of waging war and paying honorariums to public employees.  sdct

23. Que igualmente se solemnice el dia 16 de septiembre todos los a�os, como el d�a aniversario en que se levant� la voz de la independencia y nuestra santa libertad comenz�, pues en ese d�a fue en el que se desplegaron los labios de la naci�n para reclamar sus derechos con espada en mano para ser o�da, recordando siempre el m�rito del grande h�roe, el se�or don Miguel Hidalgo y su compa�ero don Ignacio Allende.

That equally we will honor the day of Sept. 16th every year, the day on which the voice of independence was raised, and our miraculous liberty began, because this day the lips of our nation were unfurled to reclaim its rights, with sword in hand, to be heard, remembering always the merit of our grand hero, Mr. Miguel Hidalgo and his companion Ignacio Allende.

Repuestas en 21 de noviembre de 1813. Y por tanto quedan abolidas �stas, quedando siempre sujeto al parecer de su alteza seren�sima.

Responses on Nov. 21, 1813. And for which these be abolished, always waiting for the disposition of His Royal Highness.

Chilpancingo, 14 de septiembre de 1813

Jos� Mar�a Morelos

[Tomado de Carlos Herej�n, Morelos: Antolog�a documental (Ciudad de M�xico: Secretar�a de Educaci�n P�blica, 1985), 133-135 (Taken from Carlos Herejon, Morelos, Document of Anthology, Mexico City, Secretary of Public Education, 1985), pages 133-135]

[This document was signed at the Church of St. Mary of the Assumption, on the plaza in Chilpancingo.]
Original Spanish document contributed by Tim Rovenstine  sdct


SONS OF DEWITT COLONY TEXAS
� 1997-2005, Wallace L. McKeehan, All Rights Reserved
Mexican Independence | New Spain-Index